Toilets for African Humanity: A joint venture collaboration effort by Ashoka African Fellows working in Sanitation and Water.

Toilets for African Humanity: A joint venture collaboration effort by Ashoka African Fellows working in Sanitation and Water.

South Africa
Project Summary
Elevator Pitch

Concise Summary: Help us pitch this solution! Provide an explanation within 3-4 short sentences.

As 3 Ashoka African Fellows working in Sanitation Fields in Africa, we would like to combine our current skills and take them to a higher international level to sort out the toileting backlog in

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Positioning of your initiative on the mosaic diagram:
Which of these barriers is the primary focus of your work?

Limited focus on long-term impact

Which of the principles is the primary focus of your work?

Move people up the sanitation ladder

If you believe some other barrier or principle should be included in the mosaic, please describe it and how it would affect the positioning of your initiative in the mosaic

This is a collaborative entry submitted by the following Ashoka Fellows
Nigeria: Isaac Durojaiye; Kenya: David Kuria; South Africa: Trevor Mulaudzi
Water: Save water in toilet use: the 20 litres of water we use in our toilets in developed countries at one time is more than what an entire family in poor and developing countries of the world has access to in a whole day.

Sanitation: Toilets should mean the same thing to all the people of the world. Everyone should be equal in the toilet and on all toilet issues.

Hygiene: Four (4) children die every minute in the world as a result of unhygienic, unhealthy and dirty toilet conditions

barrier 2: Public information alone doesn't change behavior

principle 2: Value-added services mean additional business income

What is your signature innovation, your new idea, in one sentence?

As 3 Ashoka African Fellows working in Sanitation Fields in Africa, we would like to combine our current skills and take them to a higher international level to sort out the toileting backlog in

Describe your innovation. What makes your idea unique and different than others doing work in the field?

• Isaac Durojaiye manufactures plastic Mobile Toilets (DMT Mobile Toilets Ltd) in Nigeria which are taken to all rural and poor areas in the whole of Africa where there are no toilets at all. His structures are easy to make, transport, install, use and maintain. They are culturally acceptable, peoples culture are of a great concern in the design of toilets

• David Kuria of Ecotact – Innovating sanitation, an architecture by profession designs and builds multi purpose toilet buildings in Kenya which are suitable for environments like public places, schools and all recreation places in the world. His toilet structure is characterized by its beautiful appearance and can be classified as and called “The Beatiful Toilet – Let’s Make Beautiful Our African Toilet” as they do in South Korea (check Korean websites and for further Beautiful Toilet information).
• Trevor Mulaudzi of The Clean Shop in South Africa teaches people and school children how to use a clean toilet. It’s all about maintenance of clean, safe and hygienic toilet environment after Isaac and David have put up their “Beautiful Toilets”, mobile or fixed structures, so that Trevor can keep all African Beautiful Toilets clean.

All 3 of us are specialists in our own way in the ABCD of toilet concepts, or rather ACBD. A = Architecture (David and Isaac), C = Cleanliness, Cleaning and Maintenance (Trevor), B = Behaviour of Toilet User and toileting training (Trevor, Isaac and David) and D= Disposal of Toilet Waste, sewage (David and Isaac). In summary, we are ACBD Specialists sorting out the African Toilet Mentality.

The Ashoka African fellows’ session on sanitation brought an unlikely rich confluence of ideas and solutions to school sanitation across the sub-Saharan Africa. This included David’s concepts of integrated focus from Architecture to disposal systems and reuse of sanitation waste, to Trevor’s Clean Shop concept in South Africa that strengthens sanitation management and professionalized school toilet cleanliness in an amazing proportions, and the quick material re-use of wastes plastics to produce appropriate and ergonomically suitable school sanitation furniture and superstructures.
This we summed up to the ABCD of sanitation, as follows;
Architecture and construction based on addressing appropriate ergonomics for public and school sanitation facilities. This goes beyond to providing a signature of place, in terms of built form, that enable users to link, utilize and associate closely with the toilet. We are exploring developing suitable construction components from waste plastics like sanitation slabs for schools and use of poly blocks for superstructure.
Behavior change is a critical aspect for toilets. Our traditional focus on toilets as a space we cannot link with (rural approach- toilets are located in far corners) is not tenable now with growing urbanism. This will be a key component through innovative campaigns, sports and awards for slums and schools. (David has started in Kibera with UNHabitat and Unicef support) For schools, focusing on teachers and pupils will yield more results in the long-term. Hand-washing with soap is an integral component of appreciating reasonable change of how we understand hygiene.
Cleanliness and maintenance is critical to proper utilisation and sustainability. Most public sanitations are associated with unhygienic environment and only accessible when you cannot avoid. We are hoping to develop a clear curriculum framework for sanitation management and maintenance. We will engage through franchise arrangement with local youth and women for operations and maintenance of these facilities with close oversight role by the council and schools.
Disposal systems that is appropriate for sanitation. We are developing a wide menu of options for disposal systems of human waste, with a focus to optimizing recovery and utilisation of waste, through biodigestion, composting and urine harvesting.
In order to optimize sustainability, additional activities include integrated a “Toilet Mall” concept. This aims at increasing special usability and is installing shoeshine services, calling booths, newspaper vendors and we are finalising agreement to have an

Delivery Model: How do you implement your innovation and apply it to the challenge/problem you are addressing?

By linking up with each other we intend to invade and overhaul African Toilets. With the assistance of Ashoka and other World Toilet Bodies like the World Toilet Association ( and World Toilet Organization ( we can bring a “Beautiful Toilet and Culture” to Africa.

How do you plan to expand your innovation?

By networking with all relevant Sanitation Stakeholders in Africa we shall expand our innovation. The following discussion topics are our selling points when we will be marketing our work under the theme “Let’s Make Beautiful Our African Toilet”:


• Concept of a Beautiful Toilet: Toilet is a space for excretion in charge of a part of human physiology. Since a toilet requires draining facilities using water simultaneously with excretion, it cannot be a good toilet if it is difficult to maintain for excessive use of water resources and lack of water, and for the importance of the environment. In this statement we refer to the A and D of our ACBD concept mentioned earlier on page 2.
• Desirable Beautiful Toilet: Desirable “Beautiful Toilet” is the one that can be maintained scientifically and rationally (water pollution, all the facilities and cleaning). Once the “Beautiful Toilet” is constructed, it should have a long life, structurally and functionally, to be used. Even though it becomes dilapidated after a certain period, it should be designed and constructed as easy to remodel or to repair. Beautiful Toilet and its beautiful facilities should be convenient even for a baby and pregnant woman to use, solve the disabled or blind person, the old and the weak ‘s troubles, and how to dispose of used toilet paper, as well as having a cleaning equipment box area and hand drier. Even the space for cleaners should not be forgotten. This a B and A in our ACBD concept
• Maintenance of a Beautiful Toilet: Maintaining a Beautiful Toilet under one’s real name, say maybe a businessman who sponsored a toilet, may promote a sense of responsibility and have the desired effect of increasing the reliability on the users (B). For the management it would be ideal if the government at high level would take charge of the toilet operation, or outsource that management to an Ashoka Fellow, who will manage and pay the cleaners directly. The Government may even consign a professional managing agency like The Clean Shop or DMT Mobile Toilet with the management of the toilet, as long as they are paid a fair rate and always paid on time to be able to pay the cleaners and buy consumables. This is our C and B.
• Basic Cleaning of a Beautiful Toilet: this is grouped under the following simple topics:
1. Daily cleaning
2. Routine cleaning
3. Checking defects in the structure
4. Repairs
5. Professional and technical services and
6. Outside Support Management

• 10 Rules of Beautiful Toilet Management:
1. replace consumables immediately after exhaustion, e.g., toilet paper
2. Furnish sanitary towels
3. Ventilate continuously
4. Empty waste baskets in toilets frequently
5. Remove and dry water on floors immediately
6. Clean the inside of toilet bowels frequently
7. Remove loose dirt thrown on floors immediately
8. Repair equipments having troubles or damages immediately
9. Arrange cleaning equipment properly, safely and keep them clean
10. Make out management and check lists

• 11 Notes for the African users of the Beautiful Toilet to observe, follow and stick to in order to sustain a clean toilet for Africa:
1. Please form an orderly line and wait your turn in the Beautiful Toilet quietly in good order in doorway to use a toilet
2. Use the Beautiful Toilet in a clean manner and attitude
3. have a sense of participation in saving resources such as toilet paper and water
4. do not take too much time to use the Beautiful toilet for other unnecessary deeds and duties
5. Do your natural needs standing closer to a urinal by one more step. This is very important for leaking men or those who think have long things.
6. Use toilet paper only and put sanitary pads and napkins into a wastebasket
7. Be careful not to be overflowed with water when using the hand wash basin as this will wet the floors
8. Please do not smoke your cigarettes and other narcotics when using our Beautiful Toilet
9. Pick up your minor waste yourself like pieces of tissue and throw in the wastebasket as it is not safe for even a toilet cleaner to pick up tissues he or she will never know what it was used for. Maybe it was used to clean the nose or butt.
10. For any trouble or inconvenience, please immediately contact and inform the toilet operator or manager to make a quick

Do you have any existing partnerships, and if so, how do you create them?

Yes, Ashoka, World Toilet Association and World Toilet Organization. We created these partnerships by joining and subscribing to these organizations.

Provide one sentence describing your impact/intended impact.

We will bring “Beautiful Toilet” to Africa—especially Kenya and Nigeria-- using the concept of “Let’s Make Beautiful Our Toilet – Toilet for Humanity Campaign”

What are the main barriers to creating or achieving your impact?

Toileting Issues in Africa are not taken seriously by African governments as in South Korea, Singapore, Northern Ireland and Malaysia. In these countries there is a political will to make a “Beautiful Toilet” a reality.

How many people have you served or plan to serve?

No impact yet, but as individual we have been successful in highlighting Toilet Plight to the National Agendas of states and relevant organizations. The whole African population need to be helped directly as we all need a toilet everyday.


This field has not been completed


This field has not been completed

Please list any other measures of the impact of your innovation?

Not much as yet, this is what we have to work on if assisted by funding organizations.

Is there a policy intervention element to your innovation, if so please describe?

This we will strive to achieve as we move on with our African Toilet Agenda.

Exactly who are the beneficiaries of your innovation?

This field has not been completed

How is your initiative financed (or how do you expect your initiative will be financed)?

By encouraging African Governments, politicians and decision makers to outsource the provision of “Beautiful Toilet” to Ashoka Social Entrepreneurs like the 3 of us, Isaac, David and Trevor and be willing to pay fair price on time on all the deliverables we are proposing to deliver, clean, beautiful toilets that we carry out our ACBD strategy.

Provide information on your finances and organization:

• Current Annual budget (2007 fiscal year): N/A
1. Annual budget for the past 1-2 years (2006 and 2005):
• Annual revenue generated: N/A
1. What are your current sources and/or streams of revenue?
2. Do you currently have sources of earned income (examples?)
1. If not, why?
• Number of staff (3 boxes: full-time, part-time, volunteers):

What is the potential demand for your innovation?

Number of staff (3 boxes: full-time, part-time, volunteers): Huge Demand. All people like and love to use a clean, well built and beautiful toilet. So all African people will love and appreciate our work.

What are the main barriers to financial sustainability?

This field has not been completed

The Story
What is the origin of this innovation? Tell us your story.

Our innovations as individuals are already generating interest in International organization like Ashoka, UNICEF, WTO and WTA. With our collaborating will, we will generate demand for our innovation.

There is a great need for our collaboration. One country example: Kenya
Approximately 35% of the total population of Kenya lives in urban centres where basic service delivery is highly constrained. The situation is compounded by the high growth rate of the informal settlements within the urban centres. Since these settlements are unplanned, no systems have been put in place to support the growing population. According to assessments carried out by the Ministries of Health and Water, the national sanitation coverage was 49% in 1983. Analyses conducted by the United Nations Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF) put sanitation coverage in Kenya at 45% in 1990 and 46% in 1996. (Environmental Sanitation-Field Update Sept 2005)

Over half the population lives without access to safe domestic water supplies, and many lack adequate sanitation. As a result, many people, particularly children, suffer from water-borne diseases such as diarrhea. More than 50% of all preventable illnesses in Kenya are related to inadequacy of water supply, poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Lack of access to safe water and sanitation services reinforces poverty. Sick children do not go to school and perform poorly in their studies. Parents lose the opportunity to earn income and contribute to society while looking after sick children and suffering from the illnesses themselves.

The water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Kenyan schools is far below desired standards. Only 29% of schools in the country have access to water and sanitation facilities. Accessibility to water and sanitation facilities in schools in Kenya is rated under three categories by the MOEST. When less than 40 children share one latrine, the accessibility is considered fair, forty to one hundred children using one latrine is classified as bad and dangerous if over 100 pupils share a single latrine. A study by MOEST (2003) showed that the majority of public primary schools in Kenya are in the ‘dangerous’ category. Lack of proper sanitation facilities and poor hygiene affect both girls and boys, although inadequate sanitary conditions at school have a stronger negative impact on girls. More than half of the schoolgirls who drop out of school in upper primary classes and lower secondary (form one and two) do so because they miss school periodically particularly during their menstrual periods. This is due to various factors, among them lack of sanitary pads, lack of separate toilet facilities and inadequate access to water sources within

Please provide a personal bio. Note this may be used in Changemakers marketing material

Isaac Durojaiye
Concerned about the health and environment issues created by the absence of public toilets in most Nigerian cities, Isaac started the first mobile toilet initiative in Nigeria to provide decent toilet facilities in strategic locations across the country. Isaac embarked on the first mobile toilet initiative in the country. To do this effectively and in a sustainable manner, Isaac manufactures mobile toilets locally and in a manner that meets the needs of the different categories of users. For instance, squatting mobile toilets are built for markets, parks and streets, while executive toilets are manufactured for use at seminars, crusades, construction sites, and parties. In addition, all the toilets are leased to unemployed youth who make fixed returns at the end of the day and keep whatever they make over the fixed amount. In this way, Isaac is not only creating a healthier more dignified environment throughout Nigeria, but created hundreds of jobs in the process.


David Kuria
An architect, David is the first in Kenya to successfully build hygienic sanitation facilities in informal settlements. He engages poor communities in toilet design and construction. Through dues collection and innovative financing schemes with funding partners, his facilities operate as profitable ventures for urban poor and local businesspeople. Not only is David transforming public health for the urban poor, but his work also represents a shift towards collaboration for development between slum communities, city authorities, and the business sector.

Trevor Mulaudzi
Trevor leads initial clean-ups of school toilets to discourage apathy with regards to unsanitary conditions. He has used his initial toilet-cleaning project to help schools raise both funds and awareness about health and sanitation within the community. He supplies the schools with toilet paper and cleaning materials at a low cost and encourages the schools to sell these products to parents and the rest of the community for a higher price. In this way, the schools generate income while also building community awareness and contributing to the improvement of sanitation in